Access to state services is often predicated upon an individual’s connection to clientelistic networks. Haratin/freed slaves are less likely to be able to successfully petition authorities than the Bidhân/White Moors.

The weak diversification of the economy, coupled with non-inclusive growth, means that the country’s economy remains bifurcated into the profitable and formal extractive and fishery sectors and the informal urban and underdeveloped agricultural and livestock sectors.

The government has no interest in implementing policies leading to the broadening of democracy nor the upward mobility of marginalized ethno-racial groups. The Bidhân control most of the key positions in state institutions and the state is unwilling to tackle the tensions created by this.

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