A major impediment to democratization is that political parties persist in appealing to ethnic identity, regionalism and patrimonialism when trying to canvas support. As a result, the ostensibly democratic practice tends to be rather exclusionary.

The country’s economy remains fragile, stagnant and vulnerable to exogenous shocks. Government operations are constrained due to limited domestic funds, as the after-effects of the “Cashgate” corruption scandal made donors reluctant to resume giving aid.

Corruption is endemic. It has many causes but it is mainly fueled by deep societal inequalities, poverty, patronage networks and an inefficient public service.

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