The 2021 – 2023 period enabled Burundi’s president and government to consolidate their power. Considerable political power is concentrated in the hands of a single party led by military generals. The system depends on practices like intimidation, unlawful incarcerations, torture and arbitrary killings as a means of consolidating power, suppressing opposition or simply acting with impunity.

Burundi’s economy struggles to generate substantial long-term growth, grappling with a shortage of foreign currency, rising government debt levels, high inflation and over-reliance on agriculture and mining. While the economic growth rate increased slightly, the weakness of economic growth in relation to population growth results in a low per capita income.

Since the 2020 elections, Burundi has pursued programs focused on socioeconomic development and humanitarian stabilization. In addition, the government convinced donors such as the United States and the EU to lift sanctions and provide international support. However, overall governance effectiveness remains low due to the weakness of institutions and high levels of corruption.

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