In March 2018, the center-right administration of Sebastián Piñera came into power. Long-term trends toward disaffection with all political parties and the politicization of inequalities led to a series of massive protests beginning in October 2019. 78% of Chileans voted for a new constitution in October 2020, and a constituent assembly was elected in May 2021.

Chile’s economy has undergone a long-term process of slowdown with regard to economic and productivity growth. Chile’s small, poorly diversified economy is reliant on imported fossil fuels and very exposed to shifts in global commodity prices. Thus, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a 6% drop in GDP and increased unemployment.

The protests of October 2019 forced a radical reorientation of the policy agenda toward the immediate satisfaction of unmet social demands. Chile was hard-hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, and most Chileans’ evaluation of the government’s pandemic response and the protection of people’s income was negative.

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