During the review period, Egypt’s government amplified its autocratic rule and heightened state control. Civil society faced harsh repression, with the regime targeting political opponents and dissidents. The media remained under strict state control, while the separation of powers was further limited.

Egypt’s economy suffered from the repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine, stalling its macroeconomic recovery and exacerbating social challenges. Fiscal and monetary stability weakened, resulting in depleted foreign currency reserves, high inflation rates and escalating debt levels.

Egypt’s government prioritized the interests of the elite and exhibited reluctance in addressing military control, monopolies and state involvement in the economy. Austerity measures and subsidy cuts exacerbated poverty, especially among vulnerable groups.

Show country report