The regime’s policies continued to be guided by its wish to secure its own survival. The 2020 elections for both legislative chambers were neither free nor fair. Constitutional amendments curbed judiciary independence, effectively placing the military above the constitution. The amendments also paved the way for President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi to stay in power until 2030.

The regime’s thoroughgoing approach resulted in alarming setbacks for participation and human rights. Egypt has some 60,000 political prisoners, and the practices of forced disappearance, torture and extrajudicial killings are widespread. In addition, the media remained under strict state control.

Economic output was strengthened, and both fiscal and monetary stability were enhanced. However, Egypt was severely impacted by COVID-19, both in respect to infections and deaths, as well as in regard to the pandemic’s economic repercussions, particularly affecting lower income segments.

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