The Jamaica Labour Party, which won a majority in 2016 with Andrew Holness as prime minister, repeated its victory in the September 2020 general election. A democratic tradition based on a bicameral parliamentary model remained stable, and the two dominant political parties are deeply rooted in the political culture. However, voter turnout has continued to decline.

The shock to economic performance has been severe due to measures taken to control the COVID-19 pandemic, with a 12% drop in GDP. While economic transformation aimed at deepening a market economy continued, significant shortcomings are still visible.

Governance remains hampered by poor efficiency and weaknesses in demonstrating a more inclusive, democratic form of governance. Corruption, high unemployment, and violent crime are widely perceived as Jamaica’s most pressing problems. While macroeconomic reforms were successfully completed, severe fiscal constraints hamper efforts to develop essential sociopolitical safeguards.

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