The 2018 presidential election saw the victory of Andry Rajoelina over Marc Ravalomanana, giving Rajoelina a majority in all institutions. Given this domination, national reconciliation is not prioritized. The opposition, led by Ravalomanana, emphasized that reconciliation is necessary for Madagascar’s development and boycotted the senatorial elections.

Madagascar experienced continuous economic growth until 2019. However, recent gains have been hampered by the slowdown in economic activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The country experienced an economic recession, and poverty and unemployment rates have increased.

Rajoelina’s Plan Emergence Madagascar (2019-2023) is based on three complementary pillars of sustainable development: the social pillar (human capital); the economic pillar (accelerated, inclusive and sustainable growth); and the environmental pillar (Madagascar as a “green” island), with an emphasis on governance as a cross-cutting priority. Peace and security, the rule of law and the fight against corruption are key elements.

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