During the review period, President Andry Rajoelina further consolidated his power while Madagascar prepared for the November 2023 elections. Significant civil rights concerns persist and the country still faces enormous challenges in terms of democratic performance.

Madagascar faced economic downturns exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ukraine conflict and climatic shocks, highlighting its economic vulnerability and reliance on foreign aid. These factors contributed to a 7.1% GDP contraction and a 9.8% decrease in per capita income. In 2020 alone, an additional 2.4 million people slipped below the poverty line, pushing the poverty rate to a staggering 81.9%.

Madagascar’s “Plan Emergence Madagascar” (2019-2023) outlines goals for growth, poverty reduction and anti-corruption measures, yet struggles with practical application. While the plan’s adoption in June 2022 seeks to transform the nation, the 2023 presidential election poses challenges to sustaining these reforms.

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