Yemen’s borders are even more porous than in the past and the legitimacy of the nation-state is widely challenged. The only election held after 2006 was the February 2012 presidential election in which Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi was the only candidate.

Due to the Saudi-led coalition´s air and naval blockade, smuggling goods – including weapons – into the country has become more profitable than ever. There are rumors that import and export licenses are only granted to those who are “loyal” to the respective power holders.

The violent conflicts that have plagued the country for years have exacerbated the various structural constraints. Suffering from a shortage of water and energy – and already the poorest Arab country before the war – Yemen’s population has been pushed into extreme poverty.

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