During the review period, Angola’s political climate deteriorated. The ruling Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) firmly believes in its perpetual and unchallenged rule. While it permits some degree of political opposition and dissent, it has a well-established history of suppressing anything that could pose a threat to its continued dominance. It secured the disputed 2022 elections with a reduced majority.

Angola’s economy recovered after the COVID-19 pandemic, with a growth rate of 2.6% in 2022 due to higher oil prices, boosting government revenues. However, this recovery did not translate into better living conditions, as the government used the extra funds to accelerate the repayment of its foreign debt.

The dominance of the presidency often leads to the overruling of administrative institutions that could drive reforms. While President João Lourenço initiated reforms to improve Angola’s international image, attracting foreign investment and stabilizing the economy, overarching reforms have not been materialized.

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