Politically, Eritrea remained a dictatorship in the review period, in which public political participation was impossible, civil rights and freedom of expression and assembly were absent, and human rights were routinely violated.

Eritrean authorities have not come up with any roadmap for development after the peace deal with Ethiopia due to a severe lack of state functioning. On the other hand, the diaspora tax and private remittances of Eritreans abroad help to stabilize the regime by compensating for the government’s ruinous economic policies.

For large numbers of young Eritreans, leaving the country seems to be the only option to protest the regime’s policies and to strive for a decent life in spite of the dangers en route to their destinations.

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