Eritrea is a surveillance state committed to a command economy and an autocratic political system. The Eritrean government has been engaged in an undeclared war against the Tigray People’s Liberation Front in Tigray alongside Ethiopian federal forces since November 2020, which has resulted in a humanitarian catastrophe.

The economy remained in its poor state, and chronic electricity blackouts continued alongside shortages of fuel and drinking water. It is under the control of the ruling People’s Front for Democracy and Justice and the military. High-ranking military officers were involved in illegal activities, including goods smuggling and the human trafficking of Eritreans seeking to leave the country.

The government imposed strict restrictions on movement under the pretext of the coronavirus pandemic, and all forms of public transport were shut down. These measures have led to a hidden famine, which most probably claimed more victims than the virus did.

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