In the 2019 elections, the Liberation Front of Mozambique (FRELIMO) strengthened its hold on power and consolidated its dominance across all levels of government. Widespread fraud was denounced, which remained without consequences for the ruling elite.

A third peace agreement was signed with the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) in 2019. Violent attacks are still carried out by a small group of RENAMO adherents not linked to the party leaders, as well as by Islamists in the north who now have several districts under their control.

Mozambique no longer features high macroeconomic growth rates and faces a somber fiscal situation with public debt levels at approximately 120% of GDP in 2020. Its reputation among international donors with regard to its capacity to perform has diminished. However, the devastating impact of three cyclones and the humanitarian catastrophe they have wrought, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic, have brought donors somewhat reluctantly back to the table.

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