Given the strong executive powers of the head of state and the overwhelming dominance of the governing party SWAPO, the separation of powers is flawed. Ministers of the cabinet and members of parliament are not seldom the same political figures.

Since 2016, a recession has hampered planned infrastructural investments, and the economic crisis of 2017 to 2018 turned into a full-fledged depression. The state was confronted with a fiscal liquidity crisis and had to embark on ad hoc emergency borrowing to remain afloat.

Under the Geingob presidency, the government became more proactive in setting strategic goals and priorities than it was before, yet implementation has not kept up with promises.

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