Elections in 2019 and 2020 have significantly changed the political landscape. The former liberation movement SWAPO has lost its two-third majority in national parliament and has been sent into opposition in several regions, challenging a de facto one-party rule since independence in 1990.

The ongoing economic deterioration has led to a worrisome level of public debt, while socioeconomic challenges have been increasing. The close ties with China were further strengthened, and Chinese economic activities continue to dominate in parts of the mining and construction sectors.

The management of the COVID-19 pandemic was guided initially by a strict and rigorous lockdown; however, with a few exceptions, civil liberties were not infringed upon. Repressive tendencies remained limited to the failures of individual police officers.

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