Apart from the pandemic, the unabated Islamist insurgency in the northeast, increased sectarian crises, organized crime in central Nigeria and the northwest, ongoing piracy along the coast, well-organized kidnappings and killings in many parts of the country, and violence in the Niger Delta constituted major challenges.

Despite these challenges, Nigeria managed to hold presidential, gubernatorial and parliamentary elections in 2019, which were marked by irregularities. The presidential election was seriously flawed, paving the way for a second term for the incumbent Muhammadu Buhari.

The only halfheartedly pursued anti-corruption campaign did not yield any significant results. The increase in violence and crime indicates that endemic corruption has reached new heights, and the militarization of state and society is increasing. Very modest economic growth rates are combined with a poor handling of economic and financial affairs and a high unemployment rate.

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