The political system faces problems regarding state coherence, institutional efficiency of the administrative system, internal security, patterns of democratic representation, enforcement of the rule of law and economic reform.

The economy suffers from major shortcomings: very modest economic growth rates, poor handling of financial affairs, a high unemployment rate, and overreliance on foreign exchange earnings. However, the communication sector, the religious industry, private education, retail trade and domestic construction flourished.

The government of President Buhari and the state governments neither had the capability nor the political will to establish or enforce consistent and urgently required socioeconomic and political reforms.

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