The status of Poland’s democracy further declined. The government did not implement the changes demanded by the Court of Justice of the European Union regarding the disciplinary measures imposed on the judiciary. Instead, further restrictions on the media and civil society were introduced.

The economic policy can be assessed more positively with regard to economic growth, employment and budget stability. However, the government acts instrumentally and provides favors to segments of society that provide important voter support. To a large extent, Poland’s economic stability is owed to significant EU funding, which is responsible for as much as one-quarter of economic growth.

Governance practices have not changed. They were mostly characterized by a concentration of decision-making in the center of government, less deliberation and consultation with social actors, and therefore low levels of policy adaptation based on external feedback.

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