Political participation had been limited by the regime’s suppression of freedom of expression and restriction of assembly rights. The rule of law had been undermined by a malfunctioning separation of powers, the lack of an independent judiciary, corruption and human rights abuses.

Sudan continued to prioritize high military spending, while less than 10% of the state budget was spent on social services. Amid the economic crisis, the government revoked wheat subsidies, which prompted street demonstrations over increased food prices.

The al-Bashir government’s strategic plans were mostly rhetoric meant to gain political support. The short-term priorities of the political leadership hindered the effective implementation of objectives.

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