In 2019 – 2020, Serbia’s political system continued to be characterized by the dominance of one political party – the Serbian Progressive Party. In 2020, parliamentary, provincial, and local elections were held, despite the high risk posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Because of the main opposition parties’ boycott of the election, Serbia has a parliament with no real opposition.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the economy contracted 1.5% during 2020, but a rapid recovery is expected. However, unemployment and income inequality are high, and almost a quarter of people are at risk of poverty and social exclusion; 7% of the population lives in absolute poverty.

Parliamentary oversight over the executive remains limited, weakening democratic accountability. The judiciary is not free of political influence and is plagued by inefficiency, nepotism, and corruption. Although the government has introduced several important economic and fiscal reforms since 2014, slow economic growth is a serious problem for society.

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