By 2017, the economy was increasingly stagnant and is partly a result of the slowing global economy, an unexpected drop in Chinese tourism and a reduction in the government’s ability to manage the economy and a fallout from the current U.S.-China trade war.

Since the 2014 military coup, Thais have not enjoyed any political participation. General multiparty elections were finally held on March 24, 2019 (after the period under review), but there were several irregularities and the playing field was not level.

Between 2018 and 2019, anti-democratic actors held the most power in Thailand. These actors included the monarchy, the king’s Privy Council, the military, private sector interests opposed to democratic reform, and Malay-Muslim insurgents in the deep south.

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