Turkey has become increasingly shaped by nationalist, Islamist and authoritarian forces. Military clashes continue to take place between Turkish armed forces and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party.

Despite the economic turbulence resulting from the 2016 coup attempt, war in neighboring countries, and a massive influx of approximately 4 million refugees, the economy continues to thrive. Rapid growth and increasing levels of FDI have led to increased employment and higher incomes, turning Turkey into an upper-middle-income country.

There are difficulties in reconciling elements of traditional and modern Turkish society. Rising societal polarization between secularists and conservatives and fault lines between Sunni Turks and ethnic/religious minorities represent a challenge for governance.

Show country report