The central administration and locally elected bodies have long stood accused of inefficiency, corruption and patronage. Often, civic organizations must rely on personal influence or protest to force the administration to act.

Gender inequality has risen. Even though women have significantly higher access to tertiary education, they face significant barriers in accessing the job market and represent only 18.3 % of the labor force.

Massive urbanization over the last 20 years has put pressure on Algeria’s public services. Resulting social unrest contributes to rash political decisions, such as subsidizing prices, giving out grants to ensure social calm, or as is often suggested, to “buy the peace.”

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