Several independent candidates participated in the elections, the electoral campaign was mostly peaceful and for the first time in a national election featured the participation of political groups that proposed issue-based agendas instead of relying on traditional sectarian identity politics.

There is no workable competition law. Anti-oligopolistic policies enjoy limited support and a new competition law has not been approved after years of preparation, which is an example of the reluctance to reform even among business-oriented politicians.

The institutional system implements policies inefficiently. Whereas institutions, such as the central bank or the poorly equipped army, administer crucial state functions, the executive relies on principles and methods that undermine effective governance.

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