While the re-election of President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita was declared free and fair by national and international observers, the result was not recognized by his challenger Soumaïla Cissé, which led to a polarization and division of the political class into several fractions.

The state’s weak capacity and moderate revenue limits its ability to foster economic inclusion or provide compensation for exclusion. Insufficient health care and social infrastructure affects large segments of society, with almost no effective capital-funded schemes to guarantee welfare.

Mali is striving toward democracy and a market economy while being increasingly dependent on external support, which brings negotiations with external actors into every sphere of government priority-setting and implementation.

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